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Thinking with Type

Anatomy: How Letters Sit on a Line

Attempts to standardize the measurement of type began in the eighteenth century. The is the standard used today. One equals 1/72 inch or .35 millimeters. Twelve points equal one the unit commonly used to measure column widths. Typography can also be measured in inches, millimeters, or pixels. Most software applications let the designer choose a preferred unit of measure; picas and points are standard defaults.

A letter also has a horizontal measure, called its . The set width is the body of the letter plus a sliver of space that protects it from other letters. The width of a letter is intrinsic to the proportions and visual impression of the typeface. Some typefaces have a narrow set width, and some have a wide one. You can change the set width of a typeface by fiddling with its horizontal or vertical scale.This distorts the line weight of the letters,however, forcing heavy elements to become thin, and thin elements to become thick. Instead of torturing a letterform, choose a typeface that has the proportions you are looking for, such as condensed, compressed, wide, or extended.

Size Crime: Vertical or Horizontal Scaling

Size: The Power of X-Heights

Size: Variations on a Typeface

All the typefaces shown below were inspired by the sixteenth-century printing types of Claude Garamond, yet each one reflects its own era. The lean forms of Garamond 3 appeared during the Great Depression, while the inflated x-height of ITC Garamond became an icon of the flamboyant 1970s.

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Optical Sizes

A type family with has different styles for different sizes of output.The graphic designer selects a style based on context. Optical sizes designed for headlines or display tend to have delicate, lyrical forms, while styles created for text and captions are built with heavier strokes.

Optical Sizes: Adobe Garamond Premiere Pro

Optical Sizes

is the size of design elements in comparisonto other elements in a layout as well as to the physical context of the work. Scale is relative.12-pt type displayed on a 32-inch monitor can look very small, while 12-pt type printed on a book page can look flabby and overweight. Designers create hierarchy and contrast by playing with the scale of letterforms. Changes in scale help create visual contrast, movement, and depth as well as express hierarchies of importance. Scale is physical. People intuitively judge the size of objects in relation to their own bodies and environments.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. and typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Historians and critics of typography have since proposed more finely grained schemes that attempt to better capture the diversity of letterforms. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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, contributed by Laura Meseguer

In the sixteeenth century, printers began organizing roman and italic typefaces into matched families. The concept was formalized in the early twentieth century to include styles such as bold, semibold, and small caps.

Type Families

Type Family in Use: Garamond 3



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"If you have ever visited Nashville or Washington D.C. you will see MANY names and initials carved into ... desks."

Julia Hurley on Saturday, June 23rd, 2012 in an email to constituents

By Michael Collins , Tom Humphrey on Wednesday, July 18th, 2012 at 1:13 p.m.

State Rep. Julia Hurley, R-Lenoir City, sent constituents an email last month declaring, among other things, that carving initials on desks is a "traditional act" of legislators and has a long history in both the state and national capitols. The Hurley history here dates back to last year, when the freshman lawmaker acknowledged carving her initials on her designated desk in the state House of Representatives chamber at the Tennessee Capitol toward the end of a long lawmaking day. After the incident got some media attention, she paid to have the desk refinished to remove the carved letters, J.C.H., at the suggestion of House Speaker Beth Harwell. In a June 23, 2012, email to constituents reproduced on some blogs, Hurley provided some explanation that she had not offered previously, including an assertion that the practice is commonplace and the media attention unwarranted. "If you have ever visited Nashville or Washington D.C. you will see MANY names and initials carved into the tops, sides, legs and inside drawers of desks with over a hundred years of history," she wrote. "Not only did this make front page news, the liberal media decided to associate Representative Hurley as being a vandal, while two hundred years of history has shown this to be a traditional act in all aspects of Legislators services." The description of desk carving as a normal legislative behavior struck us as an interesting assertion. Does Hurley have her history straight? In Washington, it appears Hurley is right about the U.S. Senate; but wrong about the U.S. House. U.S. senators have a long history of signing or etching their names into the drawer of their Senate desks. The tradition started in the early 20th century, around 1901 or 1902, when the first names started to show up, said Betty Koed, associate Senate historian in the Senate Historical Office. "Now it’s tradition, so most senators that come into office will sign their desk drawer in some form," Koed said. "In fact, the Senate curators who are the people in charge of taking care of the desks encourage senators to do that. There are Capitol ceremonies where the new member comes in to allow them to do that." Some senators use a pen to write their names in the desk drawer. Others etch their names into the drawer with a knife. "It’s not on the top or something that’s visible, but if you open the desk drawer of each of the old desks in the current Senate chamber, you’ll find a collection of signatures in there," Koed said. Some senators add their name every time they switch desks, so some names will appear on multiple desks. "Harry Truman, I think, signed three or four different desks because he moved from place to place," Koed said. "It’s a way to sort of put their mark on that desk but also to be part of a longstanding tradition." In the U.S. House, however, there is no such tradition. In fact, House members sit in theater-style seating and haven’t had actual desks since around 1913, according to the House’s Office of the Historian. Because they don’t have desks, there’s no place for them to write or etch their names. In Nashville, there is no such tradition for either the House or the Senate chamber. The State Capitol Commission, with a membership appointed by the governor and House and Senate speakers, oversees the state capitol building itself and all its furnishings in conjunction with the Department of General Services. Thad Watkins, general counsel for the Department of General Services, said that any marking on the state Capitol structure or its furnishings would "absolutely" require approval of the commission under the relevant state law and rules. The State Library and Archives and the State Museum would be involved as well, he said. In his nine years as department legal counsel, Watkins said, there has certainly never been a request for marking approval and he is unaware of any sought before that. "The state Capitol is a state treasure, a historic building," he said. "Safeguarding of the furnishings and the physical premises is taken very seriously. "I am not aware of anyone asking to mark or deface or leave an imprint on any state building," Watkins said. "You would need to ask (to comply with state rules and law)." Watkins suggested speaking as well with state Sen. Douglas Henry, D-Nashville, the Legislature's senior member, a longtime former member of the Capitol Commission and respected Tennessee history buff. Henry, who served his first term in the Legislature as a House member in the 1950s, said he has heard stories of Union soldiers putting marks on the Capitol and furnishings after seizing Nashville during the Civil War. Beyond that – and perhaps some defacement of furnishings and the building during the "tumultuous times" of the Reconstruction era – the senator said he knows of no tradition for carving initials or anything else on desks or other furnishings. He recalled there have been small plaques honoring deceased legislators – the late Rep. John Bragg in the House, for example. But those were duly approved in response to resolutions passed by the General Assembly. "I've never seen such a mark (initial carving) nor have I heard of such a mark," said Henry, 86. The Capitol this summer is undergoing a $15.7 million renovation and is closed to the public during the process. During a recent media tour, we found the House and Senate desks covered with protective plastic and in some cases pushed together, making a thorough check of all desks impractical. A random check of six desks in both the House and Senate chambers turned up no initials or markings inside or outside the desks – though the drawer on one House desk was locked. Still, WSMV-TV , which initially reported on the Hurley carving last year, did find some markings on other desks in the House chamber at the time. "We found the word 'Houston' on Rep. Tim Wirgau's desk, a dollar sign on Rep. Dennis Powers' territory, what appears to be the initials W.M. on Rep. Janis Sontany's desk, and an ‘A’ on Rep. Sheila Butt's desk," the station reported. Hurley, when asked about her recent email assertion, suggested that some desks may have initials inside their drawers. Otherwise, she said that the email was intended as her final comment on the initial-carving matter, that she has put it behind her and that the media should as well. The upshot is that, except for the U.S. Senate custom of names and initials inside desk drawers, there is no tradition of such doings in either Washington or Nashville. In Nashville, such carving is effectively prohibited – though it seems there have apparently been occasional episodes of unauthorized carving by someone. Those could have been done by legislators or by most anyone, since the Capitol is open to visits by the public most of the time. There could be other hidden and unauthorized carvings inside some locked desk drawers. But there are surely not "many" carvings of any sort outside the U.S. Senate, and what the representative suggests is a tradition is impossible in U.S. House and prohibited in the state House and state Senate. We rate Hurley’s historical assertion as Mostly False.


Published: Wednesday, July 18th, 2012 at 1:13 p.m.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Language for specific purposes ( LSP ) has been primarily used to refer to two areas within applied linguistics:

LSP can be used with any target language needed by the learners as a tool for specific purposes, and has often been applied to English ( English for specific purposes , or ESP ).

A third approach, content or theme-based language instruction (CBI) has also been confused with LSP. These several uses of the label of LSP have caused some confusion internationally.


LSP is a widely applied approach to second or foreign language teaching and training that addresses immediate and very specific needs of learners who need that language as a tool in their education, training or job. Needs analysis is the underlying "driver" for the development of LSP programs. [1] For example, English native speaking nurses who work in hospitals with a high percentage patient whose native language is Spanish might have to study Spanish for the very specific purpose of communication between nurses and patients. Students are encouraged to take active roles in their own learning and question what they have been taught. This is likened to negotiated syllabus about which Hyland (2009) Berry Berry sandals Black Elina Linardaki Limited Edition For Sale oaom6
writes, "A negotiated syllabus means that the content of a particular course is a matter of discussion between teacher and students, according to the wishes and needs of the learners in conjunction with the expertise, judgement, and advice of the teacher" (p. 208).

"Language for specific purposes" has also been used to refer to a branch of applied linguistics which deals with a variety of language used by members of a particular subject field, concentrating on its genres , stylistic features and technical lexis . This research is relevant for such problem-based areas as striped flaredsleeve shirt Blue PAROSH Discount Buy Official Site For Sale Buy Cheap View Find Great yvfvRsa
, translation and the design of specialised dictionaries . Some in the training area consider such research on Professional Communications as LSP-related research when it is paired with or applied directly to an LSP training program.

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(CBI) is also sometimes confused with ESP. At the post-secondary level it is frequently used to motivate groups of learners who may be interested in the same professional field, providing meaningful communication opportunities. However, as in their regular studies they are usually not studying through a foreign/second language (except for sheltered courses), they do not need English as a tool in their immediate studies. "Content-based instruction (CBI) is the integration of selected content with language teaching aims". [3] Thus, when trying to identify which approach being taken, the question is: "Is it English for Specific Purposes or English through specific content themes or content areas?"

Encoding for drive in RDP+.

In the view of drive in RDP+, nearly all the data drives are covered, because any new parity in the third parity drive X is the XOR of some two data elements. Those data pairs or tuples to construct parity are specially chosen to satisfy fast reconstruction. For example, and of disk #0 are, respectively, included in and , which will be used in the reconstruction of disk #0. In other words, disk coverage in some way guarantees the even and balanced distribution of speedup effect on multidisks. Those short combinations in drive constructed by data pairs are specially chosen to satisfy fast reconstruction. Similar algorithms to those in [ 18 20 ] can be easily constructed to find proper short combinations for drive.

(iii) Single Failure Rebuild in RDP+ . Regarding single failure reconstruction, for example, if disk#0 fails, reconstruction with the participation of related short combinations in will occur.

As shown in Figure , we use and to recover , , and for . With the help of and , respectively, and are reconstructed in the direction of slope 0 while and are, respectively, recovered from slope −1 with and . In total, there are 22 elements needed to be read, comparing with 27 element reads of RDP optimal recovery.

Rebuilding single failure with elements.

In the views of double failures, RDP+ maintains system reliability in two ways. First and foremost, RDP is included in RDP+; therefore there will be no data loss whenever any double failures happen.

Additionally, with shorter reconstruction window, some double-failure situations previous in traditional RAID-6 system could be converted to independent single failures, thus eliminating vulnerability undergone by the system. Also, the same way of using short combinations in X can be applied to save data reads for double-failure scenarios.

In fact, triple failures happen at an extremely tiny probability; therefore the third parity drive in traditional codes only exists for extreme cases. According to Reliability Equation in [ 26 ], RDP+ could convert a portion of triple-failure situations in traditional coding schemes to lower possibility, leaving unconvertible triple failures at a negligible level.

Unlike aforementioned RAID-6 codes, which are all horizontally aligned, -code [ 6 ] stands out as a vertical code and has the unique property in update complexity, which is denoted by the penalized writes to parity caused by a write request to a single data element. Additionally, nonvolatile memory (NVM) is gaining popularity and much sensitive to write operation [ 12 ]. With its born optimality on update penalty, -code is very suitable to be used in nonvolatile memory systems for its optimal update complexity to mitigate write operations. However, no extension based on X -code exists, leaving us possibility of extending X -code with the proposed RAID-6Plus methodology.

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